Published on: 23rd September, 2022.
Oral health is a well-recognized key component of the overall health and well-being, yet, suffers neglect in healthcare planning among Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Oral disease constitutes a silent epidemic, especially among disadvantaged populations such as those living in the slums of LMICs. Slums are characterized by crowded, unhealthy places with a high risk of infection and injury while the residents are often marginalized and have limited access to basic services. Slum settlements provide homes for about 1 billion world population and in Nigeria, the population is estimated to be almost half of the entire country. While research points to a higher general disease burden among slum dwellers, compared to their non-slum urban or rural counterparts, little knowledge exists about the slum dwellers' oral disease burden. An understanding of oral disease distribution and severity in different settings can aid the planning of appropriate intervention strategies.
Published on: 17th May, 2022.
Information on, or detection of abnormal growth of tissues in the body, often referred to as Cancer, is a piece of devastating news when received by people, their friends and family because it is a life-changing illness that may cause permanent disability physically and/or functionally. When any cancer is not detected on time for prompt treatment, the fatality from such a disease is very high!
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organisation (WHO) routinely publish data on the burden of Cancers, including type/pattern, the number of new cases (incidence), the total number of people diagnosed with cancers (prevalence), the survival rate after diagnosis and treatment as well as deaths related to it amongst others. Previous global reports usually present loads of data on the overall and specific cancer estimates in men and women, including children at the national, sub-continental and continental levels, using data collected from local and national population cancer registries.
Unfortunately, it is a recurring observation from previous global reports that data from countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are usually riddled with scary estimates of the relatively higher number of new cases, poor access to screening, diagnosis and treatment and deaths from cancers, relative to high-income countries.
Published on: 4th February, 2022.
In the wake of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the authors (Ozer… Adewumi et al., 2022), here identified and longitudinally monitored the circulating variants of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Nigeria using genomic surveillance and molecular analysis techniques. We reported sequences from 378 SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected in Oyo State, Nigeria between July 2020 and August 2021. Prior to our submission, Nigeria had a total of only 856 sequences in the GISAID database, thus our submissions increased reporting by nearly 50%.
Published on: 11th March, 2022.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in verbal and non-verbal expressive speech, deficits in social interaction and hyper-focused repetitive behaviors from childhood. Although the prevalence of the disorder is increasing globally, the causes and pathophysiology of ASD are not fully understood. There is a general agreement that ASD could result from interaction between genetic and environmental factors with oxidative stress as a potential link. Hence, development of oxidative stress especially in the formative years of children has equally gained prominence as the basis of the disorder. Oxidative stress determined by imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant ratio was investigated in children clinically diagnosed for ASD (cases) according to DSM-IV-TR and neuro-typical children (controls). We also determined levels of essential metals [magnesium, zinc, and copper] and toxic metal, lead in the cohort. We found an imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant system causing production of reactive oxygen species (a highly destructively group of free radicals) in the children with ASD compared to the control group. This may be very significant as a precipitating agent of structural damage and attendant disruption in transduction and transmission of signals across neurons especially in sensitive organs like the brain in the developing child. Findings in this work underscore the need for optimal intake of Zn and Mg especially by pregnant women in order to mitigate consequent damages to sensitive organs like the brain in the developing child.
Published on: 8th January, 2022
Stroke is the second leading cause of death globally and is a huge public health burden of growing importance.
In 2011, the UN resolution and the WHO Global NCD Action Plan 2013–2030 called on all governments to give primary prevention of non-communicable diseases, including stroke, the highest priority of all diseases.
This health policy publication presented an assessment of the state of stroke prevention services globally including a systematic review of primary prevention strategies and current guidelines. The authors evaluated the economic implication of stroke, enumerated gaps in primary stroke prevention, and provided novel evidence-based pragmatic solutions within a cost framework that policy makers can use to reduce the burden of stroke across the globe, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs).
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