Name: Dr. Folake O. Samuel
Faculty: PUBLIC HEALTH
Designation: Senior Lecturer
I (a) Name: Folake Olukemi Samuel (nee Egunjobi)
(b) Date of Birth: 10 October 1972
(c) Department: Human Nutrition
(d) Faculty: Public Health
II (a) First Academic Appointment: Lecturer II, 11 December 2006
(b) Present Post (with date): Senior Lecturer, 1 October 2012
(c) Date of Last Promotion: 1 October 2012
(d) Date Last Considered (in cases Not applicable
where promotion was not through)
III University Education (with dates)
- Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 1988 – 1994
- University of Ibadan, Ibadan 1995 – 1997
- University of Ibadan, Ibadan 1998 – 2005
IV Academic Qualifications (with dates and granting bodies)
i. B.Sc (Hons) Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University 1994
ii M.Sc Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan 1997
iii. Ph.D Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan 2005
V Professional Qualifications and Diplomas (with dates):
i. Certificate in Food and Nutrition Security Impact Assessment
Wageningen University, The Netherlands 2010
VI Scholarships, Fellowships and Prizes (with dates) in respect of Undergraduate and Postgraduate work only.
- Small Grants Programme for Thesis Writing, Council for the Development
of Social Science Research in Africa, Senegal. 1996
- African Nutrition Leadership Programme Netherlands Fellowship Programme, South Africa. 2005
- Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Research Foundation and Vaal University of Technology, South Africa.2006
- Postdoctoral Award for the Alexandra Nutrition Integrated Project
Santam, South Africa. 2007
- Postdoctoral Fellowship, African Women in Agricultural Research &
Development, CGIAR Gender & Diversity Program, Kenya. 2010
- Mac Arthur Start-up Grant for Female Faculty
University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 2010
VII Honours, Distinctions and Membership of Learned Societies:
- Member, Nutrition Society of Nigeria
- Member, Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology
- Member, Nutrition Society of South Africa
- Member, African Nutrition Society
- Member, American Society for Nutrition
VIII Details of Teaching/Work Experience
i. Undergraduate students
The following courses have been/are jointly taught with other lecturers in the department:
1. NUT 201 Introduction to Food and Nutrition 2005/2006 - 2011/2012
2.NUT 204 Nutrition Education I 2009/2010 - date
3.NUT 303 Food Consumption Studies 2005/2006 - 2013/2014
& Socio-Cultural Aspects of Food
4.NUT 305 Public Health Nutrition 2005/2006 - date
5.NUT 308 Proposal Writing and Oral Presentation 2009/2010 - date
6.NUT 309 Experimental Techniques 2005/2006 - date
7. NUT 401 Recent advances in Human Nutrition 2007/2008 - date
8.NUT 402 Food Chemistry and Nutritional Toxicology 2005/2006 - date
9.NUT 403 Food Consumption Studies 2007/2008 - 2012/2013
10. NUT 409 Nutrition Planning and Policy 2014/2015 - date
ii. Medical students (400 level)
11.Dietary Assessment and Nutritional Anthropometry 2013/2014 - date
iii. Nurse Tutors’ Course, University College Hospital, Ibadan
12.NTD 022 Introduction to Nutrition 2008/2009 - 2012/2013
iv. Postgraduate students
13.NUT 703 Food Science 2007/2008 - date
14.NUT 704 Agriculture and Nutrition Interface 2014/2015
15. NUT 705 Community Nutrition 2007/2008 - date
16.NUT 708 Research Seminar 2007/2008 -date
17.NUT 709 Research Methodology 2007/2008 - date
18.NUT 717 Nutrition Security, Population 2013/2014 - date
19. NUT 713 Food Consumption Survey 2007/2008 - date
20. ICH 704 Nutrition Surveillance 2013/2014 - 2015/2016
B. Supervision of Projects, Dissertations and Theses
C. Administrative responsibilities
1. B.Sc Coordinator, Department of Human Nutrition 2005/2006 - 2012/2013
2. Staff Adviser, Department of Human Nutr 2007/2008 - 2012/2013
3. Postgraduate Coordinator, Department of Human Nutriti 2013/2014 - 2015/2016
4. Ag. Head, Department of Human Nutrition 01 /08/ 2015 to date
5. Member of, or have served on the following committees:
- Departmental Finance Committee2012 to date
- Departmental Welfare Committee2007 to 2013
- Departmental ICT Committee2007 to 2015
- Departmental Environmental Committee2007 to date
- Faculty Journal Committee2014 to date
- Faculty Distinguished Lecture Committee2014 to date
- College Board of Survey2008 to 2014
6. Member of, or have served in the following university assignments
- Team member in the following UI Step-B projects:
- Girls’ Science Camp 2010
- ICT-based mathematics learning intervention for primary school girls: a university-community partnership initiative 2011
b. Acting Monitoring and Evaluation officer for UI Step-B projects 2012
- Nutritional Studies on rice and maize-based masa enriched with soyabean and crayfish (2013-2014).
Role: Principal Investigator
2. Strategies for breastfeeding behavior change among women in Ibadan, Oyo State (2013-2016).
Role: Principal Investigator
3. Maternal and child nutrition in Nigeria: A review. Collaborative research of Nigeria Nutrition Study Team and Australia-Africa Universities Network coalition (2014-2015).
Role: Co- Investigator
4. Food consumption pattern and nutrient adequacy of cassava value chain actors in Guinea Savannah area of Nigeria (2014-2015).
Role: Co- Investigator
5. Nutrient Composition, Functional, and Sensory Properties of complementary diets made from Local Rice (2016).
Role: Co- Investigator
(b) In progress
- Efficacy of bio-fortified (yellow) cassava in improving vitamin A status in children between the ages of 3 – 5 years (CASSAVITA II study).
Cassavita II study is a Randomized Control Feeding Trial primarily aimed at establishing a proof-of-principle of the efficacy of biofortified yellow cassava in contributing to total retinol pools in 176 children between the ages of 3-5 years, living in a rural area. It is a collaborative project between the University of Ibadan and Wageningen University, Netherlands, funded by HarvestPlus. Field work has been completed, while laboratory analyses of blood and food samples are currently being carried out.
Role: Co- Investigator
2. Assessing model parameters for applying the retinol isotope dilution method in preschool Nigerian children living in an area with a high malaria burden (SUPERKID study).
This is a methodological study aimed at validating the use of a short protocol for assessing body retinol pools in preschool children, by modelling data derived by retinol isotope dilution method. A secondary aim is to compare body retinol pools between children with and without inflammation and to assess the effect of malaria on model parameters. The study forms part of a series of studies commissioned by the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the aim of optimising nuclear techniques to assess vitamin A status in children. Preliminary activities such as ethical approval application, community engagement and recruitment of study participants are ongoing.
Role: Principal Investigator
3. Prevalence of iron, vitamin A, iodine and zinc deficiency and intake gap in children and adolescents in African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa
An understanding of the scale and scope of micronutrient status and intake is imperative in prioritizing public health strategies in Africa. However, most African countries lack nationally representative and up to date data on micronutrient deficiency. This study is a systematic review to determine the deficiency prevalence and intake gap of iron, vitamin A, iodine and zinc in children and adolescents (0-18y) in four large African countries, including Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa.
Role: Co- Investigator
(c) Project, Dissertation and Thesis
- Egunjobi F.O (1994) Chemical analyses of two weaning diets made from cornflour, soyabeans and crayfish - B.Sc project, Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University
- Egunjobi F.O. (1997) Mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and utilization of soyabeans as food for children in Oriire Local Government Area of Oyo State - M.Sc Project, Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan.
- Samuel F.O. (2005) Childhood undernutrition and household environmental quality in selected urban and rural communities in Oyo State - Ph.D Thesis, Human Nutrition, University of Ibadan.
- (a)Books already published: Nil
(b) Chapters in books already published:
- Fadupin, G.T., Adepoju, O.T and Samuel, F. O. (2012) Nutrition and Human Health. In Reproductive Health, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.Ibadan: University of Ibadan. 12-35pp. ISBN:978-978743 56 54. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 25%)
*2.Samuel, F. O. and Makhani, N. (2016) Food Cultures. In Temple, N. and Steyn, N. (Eds.). Community Nutrition for Developing Countries. Canada: Athabasca University Press, Edmonton. 47-53pp. ISBN 978-1-86888-789-7 (print) doi:10.15215/aupress/ 9781927356111.01. (Canada) (Contribution: 80%)
*3.Samuel, F.O. (2016) Leftover Food Reuse or recycling in Households. In Sridhar, M., Hammed T., and Okoye, A. (Eds.). Entrepreneurship in Waste Recycling. Ibadan: BookBuilders. 149-157pp. ISBN 978 978-921-121-0 (Nigeria).
(c) Articles that have already appeared in Refereed Conference Proceedings:
4.Samuel, F.O. (2006)Maternal characteristics and child undernutrition in three different socio-economic groups in Ibadan. In Makokha, A.O. and Wangalachi, M.A. (Eds.). Food and Nutrition Security for Health and Development: Proceedings of the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. Kenya: Kenya Coalition for Action in Nutrition. 112-115pp. (Kenya).
(d) Patents: Nil
(e) Articles that have already appeared in learned journals.
5.Otegbayo, B.O., Samuel, F.O. and Fashakin J.B. (2001). Effect of parboiling on physico-chemical properties of two local rice varieties in Nigeria. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Vol. 6. No. 4:130-132. (Kenya) (Contribution: 40%).
6.Samuel, F.O. and Cole, A.H. (2002). A comparison of mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and utilization of soyabeans and cowpeas for child feeding in a Nigerian rural area. Food and Nutrition Bulletin Vol. 23. No.3: 248-252. (United States of America) (Contribution: 80%).
7.Fasoyiro S.B., Ashaye O.A., Adeola A.A. and Samuel F.O. (2005). Chemical and Storability of Fruit Flavoured (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drinks. World Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.1.No.2: 165-168. (Egypt) (Contribution: 20%).
8.Samuel, F.O. and Otegbayo, B.O. (2006). Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of Ogi enriched with soyabeans and crayfish. Nutrition and Food Science Vol. 36. No. 4: 214-217. (United Kingdom) (Contribution: 80%.).
9.Oldewage-Theron ,W.H, Samuel, F.O, Grobler, C. and Egal A.A (2008). Anaemia prevalence and dietary intake of elderly living in a peri-urban settlement in South Africa. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences Vol. 36: 22-29. (South Africa) (Contribution: 35%).
10.Samuel, F. O. and Atinmo, T. (2008). Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Risk Factor in African Diets. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table Vol. 2008. No. 1:1-15.http://www.forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivespring08/samuel.pdf (United Kingdom) (Contribution: 80%).
11.Oldewage-Theron, W.H., Samuel, F.O. andVenter, C.S. (2008). Zinc deficiency among the elderly attending a care centre in Sharpeville, South Africa. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics Vol.21. No. 6: 566-574. (United Kingdom) (Contribution: 40%).
12.Djoulde R.D., Oldewage-Theron W.H.,Egal A.A. and Samuel F.O. (2010).Influence of room temperature storage reheating cycles on nutritional properties of maize meal porridge used in the Vaal region, South Africa. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation Vol. 34:181–191. (United States of America) (Contribution: 20%).
13.Lawal, B.O. and Samuel, F.O. (2010). Determinants of Nutritional Status of Children in Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development Vol. 10. No.10: 4235 – 4253. (Kenya) (Contribution: 50%).
14. Oldewage-Theron W.H, Samuel F.O and Djoulde R.D (2010) Serum concentration and dietary intake of vitamins A and E in low-income South African Elderly. Clinical Nutrition (Scotland) (Contribution: 40%).
15. Otegbayo B.O., Samuel F.O., Kehinde A.L., Sangoyomi T.E. and Okonkwo C.C. (2010). Perception of food quality in yams among some Nigerian farmers. African Journal of Food ScienceVol. 4. No.8: 541- 549. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 25%).
16. Samuel F.O., Oldewage-Theron W.H., Egal A.A., Napier C. and Venter C.S. (2010). Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a poor peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa. Health SA Gesondeid. http://www.hsag.co.za (South Africa) (Contribution: 50%).
17. Samuel, F.O., Otegbayo, B.O. and Alalade T. (2012). Nutrient and anti-nutrient content of soy-enriched Tapioca. Food and Nutrition Sciences Vol.3: 784-789. (United States of America) (Contribution: 60%).
*18. Samuel, F.O (2013) Pattern of stunting among under-five children in selected urban and rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. ICAN: Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition Vol.5. No.6: 393-398 (United States of America).
*19. Otegbayo, B.O., Samuel, F.O., and Alalade T. (2013). Functional properties of Soy-enriched Tapioca. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.12. No. 22: 3583-3589. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 40%).
*20.Samuel, F.O. (2014). Assessing the Prevalence of undernutrition using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among young children in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Vol. 35. No. 2: 19-24. (Nigeria).
*21.Samuel, F.O., Isola, O.R and Otegbayo, B.O (2015). Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Rice-Based Masa Enriched with Soyabean and Crayfish. Food and Nutrition Sciences Vol. 6: 234-241. (United States of America) (Contribution: 60%).
*22. Atoloye, A.T, Ogunba, B.O and Samuel, F.O. (2015). Spatial Pattern of Household Food Insecurity and Childhood Malnutrition in Akinyele Local Government Area, Nigeria. International Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 3. No.1: 235-250. (United States of America) (Contribution: 30%).
*23. Samuel, F.O., Oyelese I., Leshi O.O. and Arulogun, O.S. (2015) Knowledge and Intention of Breastfeeding among adolescent girls with hearing impairment in Ibadan. West African Journal of Food and Nutrition Vol 13. No.1: 24-30. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 50%)
*24. Samuel, F.O., Olasope, T. and Leshi, O. O. (2015) Research in the Nigerian Journal Of Nutritional Sciences: A content analysis of articles from 1981 to 2014. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Vol. 36. No.2: 1-6. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 70%).
*25. Akinremi, Z.O. and Samuel F.O. (2015). Knowledge and Attitudes toward Exclusive Breastfeeding among Hairdresser Apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research Vol.5. No. 3: 376-385. (United Kingdom) (Contribution: 50%).
*26. Samuel, F.O., Ariyo, O. and Adetumbi, A.J (2015) Dietary diversity and Anthropometric characteristics of in-school adolescents. West African Journal of Food and Nutrition Vol 13. No.1: 56-65. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 60%)
*27. Samuel, F.O. and Ugochukwu, C.P. (2016) Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of selected Primary Health Centres in Ibadan North Local Government of Oyo State. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Vol. 37. No. 1: 39-45. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 80%).
*28. Samuel, F.O., Adepoju O.T. and Leshi O.O. (2016) Knowledge and Attitude of Male Staff in a Nigerian Tertiary Institution towards Infant Feeding. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research Vol.12 No.1: 1-9. (United Kingdom) (Contribution: 50%).
*29. Leshi, O.O., Samuel, F.O. and Ajakaye, M.O. (2016) Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Intention among Female Young Adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. Open Journal of Nursing Vol. 6: 11- 23. (United States of America) (Contribution: 40%).
*30. Oroniran O.O, Otegbayo B.O., Samuel F.O. and Aremu O.O. (2016) Nutrient Composition, Functional and Sensory Properties of Gruel made from Local Rice. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Vol.37 No.1: 94-102. (Nigeria) (Contribution: 25%).
*31. Samuel, F.O., Olaolorun, F.M. and Adeniyi, J.D. (2016) A Training Intervention on Child Feeding among Primary Healthcare Workers in Ibadan Municipality. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine. Vol. 8. No. 1:1-6. (South Africa) (Contribution: 50%).
(f) Books, Chapters in Books and Articles already accepted for publication:
(g) Technical Reports and Monographs:
*32.Samuel F.O. (2010) Child Health Week in Nigeria: Progress and Implementation Report.Technical report submitted to the United Nations Children’s Fund. 33pp (Nigeria).
*33. Samuel F.O. (2014) Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Week in Ekiti State. Technical report submitted to Helen Keller International. 36pp (Nigeria).
*34. Samuel F.O. (2015) Healthy Nutrition of Rice Smallholder Families.Technical report submitted to Competitive African Rice Initiative (CARI) of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). 38pp (Nigeria).
XI Major Conferences Attended with Papers Read (in the last 5 years)
- Experimental Biology conference, San Diego, USA. Burden and determinants of childhood undernutrition in an urban slum community in Ibadan. 21-25 April.
Samuel F.O. and Fadeyi F.B (2012)
2. Nutrition Congress Africa, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Mothers’ Perception of soybeans as food for young children in selected rural communities in Nigeria. 1 – 4 October.
Samuel F.O. (2012)
3. 2nd Soy colloquium and Workshop,Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa. Delivering adequate nutrition to poor communities – issues, challenges and opportunities. 4– 6 September.
Samuel, F.O. (2013).
4. 6th African Nutrition Epidemiology Conference, Accra, Ghana. Preparedness for Breastfeeding among prospective brides in Ibadan, Nigeria. 21 -25 July.
Samuel, F.O., Adaramola V., Leshi O., and Arulogun O.S (2014).
5. 3rd Soy Colloquium and Workshop , Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa. Myths and controversies of soy debunked. 22 -26 September.
Samuel F.O. (2014).
6. 45th Annual General Meeting and Scientific Conference, Nutrition Society of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria. An Analysis of Research Trends in the Nigerian Journal Of Nutritional Sciences (1981 - 2014). 15-19 September.
Samuel F.O. (2015).
7. 3rd International Conference on Nutrition & Growth, Vienna, Austria. Using case-based discussion to improve grandmothers' knowledge and attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding in Ibadan, Nigeria. 17-19 March.
Samuel, F.O, Oladokun, F.M and Leshi, O. (2016).
Ten publications that best highlight my research work
- Samuel, F.O. and Cole, A.H. (2002) A comparison of mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and utilization of soyabeans and cowpeas for child feeding in a Nigerian rural area. Food and Nutrition Bulletin Vol. 23. No.3. 248-252.
- Samuel F.O., Oldewage-Theron W.H., Egal A.A., Napier C. and Venter C.S. (2010). Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a poor peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa. Health SA Gesondeid. http://www.hsag.co.za .
- Oldewage-Theron W.H, Samuel F.O and Djoulde R.D (2010) Serum concentration and dietary intake of vitamins A and E in low-income South African Elderly. Clinical Nutrition
- Samuel, F.O., Otegbayo, B.O. and Alalade T. (2012). Nutrient and anti-nutrient content of soy-enriched Tapioca. Food and Nutrition Sciences Vol.3: 784-789. (United States of America)
- Samuel, F.OCAN: Infant, Child, & Adolescent Nutrition Vol.5 . No.6: 393-398.
- Samuel, F.O.using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among young children in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Vol. 35. No. 2: 19-24.
- Samuel, F.O., Isola, O.R and Otegbayo, B.O (2015). Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Rice-Based Masa Enriched with Soyabean and Crayfish. Food and Nutrition Sciences
- Leshi, O.O., Samuel, F.O. and Ajakaye, M.O. (2016) Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Intention among Female Young Adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. Open Journal of Nursing Vol. 6: 11- 23.
- Samuel, F.O. and Ugochukwu, C.P. (2016) Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of selected Primary Health Centres in Ibadan North Local Government of Oyo State. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences Vol. 37. No. 1: 39-45.
- Samuel, F.O., Olaolorun, F.M. and Adeniyi, J.D. (2016) A Training Intervention on Child Feeding among Primary Healthcare Workers in Ibadan Municipality. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine. Vol. 8. No. 1:1-6.
Areas of focus
My core research interest is Community Nutrition with a focus on the nutritional well-being of people in various communities, across the lifecycle from infancy to old age. I also embrace research that employs food science as a means of achieving nutrition security in both rural and urban communities.
My research is built around three interrelated themes:
1. Childhood undernutrition: This aspect of my scholarship has been motivated and shaped by the malnutrition profile of children under the age of 5 years in Nigeria. My studies fall within the purview of capturing and understanding the nutritional vulnerability of children, as shown in papers 4, 13, 18, 20, 22, 32, 33. The findings confirm the high burden of childhood undernutrition in communities, with the biological and social vulnerability varying widely in different contexts. Recommended feeding in this age group is optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding - recognized globally as the bedrocks of growth and development. These, therefore, form an important sub-set of my studies (papers 6, 8, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). My research on breastfeeding knowledge seeks to provide critical insights that could serve as a basis for fashioning strategies to improve the breastfeeding in Nigeria. I have investigated breastfeeding awareness and knowledge among various groups in the community including women of reproductive age, health workers, fathers, grandmothers, future mothers - adolescent girls and young brides – not leaving out socially vulnerable groups like out-of-school apprentice girls and girls with physical disabilities. Regarding complementary feeding, my papers have explored the combination and utilization of local food staples to support complementary feeding in childhood. The findings from all the foregoing provide the springboard for my current and future intervention studies on child feeding and undernutrition in children.
2. Food analysis: Food analysis is at the centre of papers 5, 7, 8, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 30, investigating nutrient and anti-nutrient composition, as well as functional and sensory properties of local staples and their various mixtures. With soybeans as the connecting thread of interest in most of these papers (as a nutrient-rich legume), this section of my research investigates the potentials of producing nutritious diets from soybeans, cowpeas, maize, crayfish, yam and rice using simple methods that can be adopted at the household and community levels. These papers have contributed to the literature on the improvement of macro- and micronutrient quality of starchy staple diets that are widely consumed.
3. Micronutrient deficiencies: In the community, micronutrient deficiency is a problem across the life course. My early research activities in this area (papers 9, 11, 14, 16) were carried out in South Africa and examined the prevalence of deficiencies and dietary intake gap of zinc, iron, vitamin A and vitamin E in children and the elderly in poor communities. The findings largely indicated low measures of biochemical indicators of micronutrient status, with large proportion of children and elderly failing to meet the recommended intake of these micronutrients. At present, my research effort in micronutrients is growing towards the linkages between agriculture, nutrition and food science, by my recent participation in a randomized control trial to test the efficacy of biofortified cassava in reducing vitamin A deficiency in young children in Nigeria. Although this is work in progress, the indications are that biofortification of staples presents unique opportunities for micronutrient nutrition, and more of these need to be unearthed by research.
In conclusion, the overall aspiration of all my research endeavours, as highlighted above, is to promote optimal nutritional status for the health, improved productivity and development of people especially at the community level.